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Congratulations! What we just did is incredible. Every service object we have - meaning every object that does work like BattleManager, PDO and ShipLoader - is created by the Container class. This is its only job.

Adding Arguments? Simple

The benefits are huge. Here's one. Imagine we need to give BattleManager a few constructor arguments. Once we've done that, the only code we need to touch outside of BattleManager is right here inside Container. We don't need to go anywhere else - like battle.php - and change anything. We just say $container->getBattleManager() and the Container class will take care of all of the work to create that object.

Objects aren't Created Until/Unless Needed

But wait, there's more! Before, at the top of our files - like index.php - we created all of our objects. So if we had 50 different useful service objects, we'd create them all right here. How wasteful.

But with the Container idea, none of these objects are created until and unless you ask for them. For example, index.php never calls $container->getBattleManager(). So the BattleManager object is never created. We save precious CPUs and memory.

Containers: A Pattern

I didn't invent this Container idea - it's a well-known strategy called a dependency injection container. It's a special class and you always have just one.

Its only job is to create service objects. And in fact, if you do a good job, all service objects will be created here - you won't instantiate them anywhere else.

Model Classes versus Service Classes

Remember - model objects - like Ship and BattleResult - are classes that just hold data and don't really do much work. And you can create these whenever you need them - they're not created by the Container. So in BattleManager at the bottom of battle(), we needed a new BattleResult to be a container for our data. And in ShipLoader, whenever you query for a ship, we create a new Ship model object.

Model objects can be created anywhere in your code, whenever you need them. But these service objects - the ones that do work for you and don't really hold data - these should be created in a central spot. And the Container is a nice way to do that.

Reorganizing Models and Services

To make this more clear in our app, let's redecorate. Create a lib/Service directory and a lib/Model directory. Move BattleManager, ShipLoader and Container - it's a little different, but it's still technically a service - into lib/Service. And move BattleResult and Ship - our simple "model" objects into lib/Model:

mv lib/BattleManager.php lib/Service
mv lib/ShipLoader.php lib/Service
mv lib/Container.php lib/Service

mv lib/Ship.php lib/Model
mv lib/BattleResult.php lib/Model

To make this work, we just need to update the require paths in bootstrap.php:

14 lines bootstrap.php
... lines 1 - 8
require_once __DIR__.'/lib/Service/Container.php';
require_once __DIR__.'/lib/Model/Ship.php';
require_once __DIR__.'/lib/Service/BattleManager.php';
require_once __DIR__.'/lib/Service/ShipLoader.php';
require_once __DIR__.'/lib/Model/BattleResult.php';

And yes, in a future episode, we're going to fully get rid of these. And it will be great.

Refresh! Still working!

Best Practices vs the Real World

In this episode, instead of learning more OO concepts, we went straight to the hard stuff and learned how to organize our code into model classes that hold data and service classes that do work. We also learned that when you're in a service class - like ShipLoader - instead of hardcoding configuration or creating other service objects inside, we can move those outside of the class and add anything we need as an argument to the __construct() function. Then, we'll pass that information to the class. That's dependency injection, and it's one of the harder things to grasp about OO. So if it doesn't totally make sense yet - stick with us - we'll keep practicing.

Now a quick warning. When you look at other projects, this idea of model objects -- that hold data but don't do anything - and service objects - that do work but don't really hold any data - is not always followed. Sometimes you'll see these mixed together you might have a class like Ship that has methods in it that do work - like battle() or even save() that would save the Ship's data to the database.

What I'm showing you are "best practices". When you get out into the wild, it's not always this clean. And that's ok - over time, you'll learn to bend the rules when it makes sense. But in your mind, keep these two types of classes separate and recognize if a class is a model, a service or both.

Ok guys - in the next episodes, we're going to dive into more great concepts of OO - like interfaces, abstract classes, and static calls. These will really take your mad-skills to the next level.

So join us, and I'll seeya guys next time!

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