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Autoloading: Where did require/include go?

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Autoloading: Where did require/include go?

Autoading: it’s like plumbing. You forget it’s there, but when it’s gone, well, let’s just say you have to go outside a bit more often.

Autoloading is the magic that lets us use classes without needing to require or include the file that holds them first. We used to have include statements everywhere, and well, it was terrible.

But an autoloader has a tricky job: given any class name, it needs to know the exact location of the file that holds that class. In many modern projects, including ours, Composer handles this, and there are two pieces to understanding how it figures out what file a class lives in.

Directory Structure and Namespaces

When we create an Event object, Composer’s autoloader knows that this class lives inside src/Yoda/EventBundle/Entity/Event.php. How? It just takes the full class name, flips the slashes, and adds .php to the end of it:

Yoda\EventBundle\Entity\Event

src/Yoda/EventBundle/Entity/Event.php

As long as the namespace matches the directory and the class name matches the filename plus .php, autoloading just works. Let’s mess this up - let’s rename the Entity directory to Entity2:

use Yoda\EventBundle\Entity\Event;

// the src/Yoda/EventBundle/Entity/Event.php file is "included"
// .. so the file better exist and "house" the Event class!
new Event();

If we run play.php now, it fails big:

Class ‘YodaEventBundleEntityEvent’ not found

The autoloader is looking for an Entity directory. Rename the directory back to Entity to fix things.

Library Directory Paths

Right now, it almost looks like the autoloader assumes that everything must live in the src/ directory. So how are vendor classes - like Symfony - loaded?

That’s the second part. When we fetch a library with Composer, it configures its autoloader to look for the new classes in the directory it just downloaded.

Open up the vendor/composer/autoload_namespaces.php file. This is generated by Composer and it has a map of namespaces to the directories where those classes can be found:

// vendor/composer/autoload_namespaces.php
// ...

return array(
    'Symfony\\' => array($vendorDir . '/symfony/symfony/src'),
    // ...
    'Doctrine\\ORM' => $vendorDir . '/doctrine/orm/lib/',
    'Doctrine\\DBAL' => $vendorDir . '/doctrine/dbal/lib/',
    'Doctrine\\Common\\DataFixtures' => $vendorDir . '/doctrine/data-fixtures/lib/',
    // ...
);

So when we reference a Symfony class, it does the slash-flipping trick, and then looks for the file starting in vendor/symfony/symfony/src:

SymfonyComponentHttpFoundationResponse

vendor/symfony/symfony/src/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.php

Now you know all the secrets about the autoloader. And when you see a class not found error, it’s your fault. Sorry! The most common mistake is easily a missing use statement. If it’s not that, check for a typo in your class and filename.

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